Here is the  third  "position paper" for the 2012 Harbour Research project. Corrections and additions are welcomed. The purpose of the document, with others to come, is to seek people who will undertake serious research on aspects of the history of the harbour.  John Rushton 2012

Structures in Scarborough  Harbour, other than  piers, quays, staiths and  houses.

Accident Receiving House.  20th Century

Scarborough Corporation ran  this house at the Foreshore Road  in South Bay with Inspector Mosey in 1923 and John Howson as Inspector in 1939..Various houses, including Ellis’s old long room , were used  to receive drowned adn injured men in earlier periods. 

Alehouses   -  All periods

                        The selling of ale  was subject to licence and hence was well recorded in most periods. Scarborough “plaint books” run from 1403 onwards. Brewer’s licences are recorded for 1552-3,. A list  of victuallers and ale brewers for c1600 named William Brown, Christopher Johnson, George Wyndell, Roland Marshall, William Dicconson., Uxor Hedley, Richard Fletcher, Alex Gerreson, Margaret Thomson,Thomas Battie, John Wolfe, Nicholas Store, Robert Hararde, George Wood, Robert Flyntoft, Francis Conyers, Uxore Herrington, Matthew Herreson, Elizabeth. Constable, William Shemynge, Roger Marsyngall, William Skirrye, Francis Rennye, Lawrence .Porret, W Jefferson, and David Burne

                        Brewsters appear frequently at the courts . Widow Ann Harrison sold ale without measure in 1621and  thirteen more including Matthew Wolfe and Alexander Harrson sold beer or ale at 1d a quart. Christopher Fell was presented at court for a brewhouse without a chimney in 1622. 35 people were charged with breaking the assize of ale a few years later. William Hodgson a cordwainer, & six more brewed and sold ale without licence in 1636 . Richard Bilbrough sold drink at 2d a gallon in 1639

There were  86 brewsters in Scarborough in 1646  including two Rosedales and  two Worfolks. Hugh Kirby failed to sell a quart  of best ale for a penny in 1632 and was fined two shillings . Scarborough  had  92 with licences in 1783 and 87 in 1793(Chapman /53) By 1825 there were 102 publicic houses of all kinds  The Beerhouse Act of 1830 made licences cheap and easy to obtain ,encouraging a further increase.A proportion of these were in the Undercliff.

Public houses in the Undercliff 

Beehive Inn 8 Sandside 1823-1902(Esther Bee 1834)

Beerhouse               Sandside 1840(REbecca Dale)

Beerhouse               Tuthill 1840(Ann Robinson)

Beerhouse               Quay St, 1840 (Samuel Spark)

Beerhouse               Sandside .1840.(Wm Lancaster)

Black Horse 10. Tuthill. 1864-90

Blockmaker’s Arms. 68 Quay St., 1846(WmMollon)

Board             East Sandgate 1823

Board             Sandside. 1823-40  (John Bee in1840) Bee Hive in 1823

Board             59 Quay St. 1823-40(Jane ware 1840)

Board             77 Quay St (Isabella Park 1840)(Porrits lane)              

Board             Quay St, 1823(John Crooks)

Board             Quay St,1823(John Oxley);1840, Buck or Stag 

Board             Quay St ,1823(William Burton)

Buck                          Quay st. 1840(John Oxley 1840)

Buoy Inn                    22 Sandside .1829-1902(John Skelton 1834-40)

Crab & Lobster.      East Sandgate.1849.Some say Castlegate bottom

Dog and Duck          Quay st/Sandside 1822-90           Dog and Duck lane

                                    Absorbed into the Lancaster .

Dolphin                      West Sandgate 1823-49.              

                                    78 EAstborugh 1890-1976

Fisherman’s Arms.7. Tuthill,1834-40(George Tyson 1834-40)

Fishmonger;sArms.Long Greece 1823-34(Mary Potter)

Fisherman’s Arms. 66 Eastborough 1861-1892

Five man boat          Sandside 1822(S.Hlliday)

Flower in Hand        4. Burr Bank.1861-1905.                Earlier public house 1850; 

                                    beerhouse 1840.perhaps Letters 1829

Golden Ball               31 SAndside/Quay Street. 1719-1973

Golden Last  9 Carr Street.1779,-1840   Hotel 1933.Also Conduit Row.1779

                                    12 Eastborough 1890-1973

Hope  Inn                  Sandside 1825-40(Jhn Hall)

Hope and Anchor    31 Quay St 1822-1902 /Sandside 1823-51

Kingfisher                 39 Quay St. 1834-49

Kings Head               Sandside 1823-40(Isabella Claybbourn)

Lancaster Inn          Quay St ,1840-72). Replaced ShipwrightsArms

                                    45 Sandside 1851-1973

Leeds Hotel  Princess Square.                            27. St Mary’sSt 1867-1905

                                    given as WEst Sandgate.1973     Rebuilt 1900

Lettered Board        2 Palace hill.1834(John Foxton)

Letters                      Quay St ,1849(Mary Park)

Letters                      Porret’s;lane 1829-31(Ann Harland)

Lobster                     EAst Sandgate 1840(James Bulmer)

Lifeboat Inn  behind Pier hotel                             passage

Lord Nelson 33 Merchant’sRow.1825-1851     Wharton lane 1823

                                    Pattisons lane in 1834.(William Trott)1840(Isaac Morley)

                                    Lord Nelson Hotel, foreshore Road 1890-1973

London Packet        East sandgate 1823-34.(Jane stephenson)

Mariner’s Inn           47 Merchant’srow. 1849-51          1857 dramshop

Neptune                    39 Merchant’srow. 1834( Ed Fox)            Also given 1823  in Cross St.

Newcastle Packet Inn. 24. Sandside. 1834 -1899.rebuild.?.No 13 in 1894-1973

                                    No 11 in 1834(James Oxley)

Newcastle Trader  Sandside 1840(James Oxley

Old King’s Arms      24 East Sandgate1823-51(Thos Mosey1823)

                                    (Annmosey 1840)                            Used by sea captains

Old Kings Arms.      Sandside 1840(John Pennock)

Pannierman’sArms/40 Merchants Row. 1858

Pier Hotel                  37 Foreshore Road 1890-1973. (Neptune Terracein 1892)

Queen Adelaide      16 Palace hill.1825-57                   Called Queen’sHead”1840

Rose & Crown         30 Merchant’sRow,1823--34        6   AlbertRow 1890-1937

                                    14Queen’sTerrace. 1973

Running horse Inn  East Sandgate.1740-52. near s;lutwell

Sailor’s Return        Sandside 18C.-1825(Catherine Manning)

Scarborough Arms, East Sandgate 1823-31

Sheffield Arms        Foreshore Road .1911                   later Catlin’s Arcadian restaurant

                                    Bland’scliff 1892.

Ship                            5 West Sandgate 1823-81.

Ship                            Sandside.1840-1931                     later bingo house

Ship                            Tuthill 1823

Ship.               Merchant Row 1760(Eliz Harrison)

Smith’s arms           East sandgate 1823-31

Spread Eagle           Sandside/Quay St 1823-90(Mark tissiman 1840)

                                    Spread Eagle lane

Ship Inn                     Sandside. 1747-1840        Old Ship 19Sandside 1890-1905

Shipwright’s ArmsQuay St 1823(John Shaw) 1851 (Wm Lancaster)

Stag                           16 Quay st 1823-40(John Oxley). Removed by GAs Co.

Sunderland Bridge 11 East Sandgate 1825-51,          corner of whitehead hill

TartarFrigate           Long Greece, top of steps.

Tavern                       Long Greece Foot.1539-1630

Three Mariner’sInn.65  QuaySt ,1851-1902                 No 49 in 1905.55 in 1892

Tiger                          43 Merchant’sRow 1823-34

Turk’s Head 3 Eastborough .1890-1973

Victoria Inn               1 EAst Sandgate 1840-1905.No 24 in 1864      ?Tunny club

Wheatsheaf,            Quay St. 1823

White Hart.               Quay st

White Horse QuaySt ,1724 (JaneSketon)(


Bait houses

Line fishing required baiting of long lines. This was done in the open air but some fishrmen’s outhouses called bait houses were used for cleaning and baiting lines. They are rarely mentioned at Scarborough 


Bark houses

Fisherman’s houses were workplaces as well as dwellings .Some had barking coppers set in the hillside in which to steep lines and nets in “cutch” to preserve them. .Floats made from animal bladders were also cured, tarred and painted


Bawdy houses

The Sluttes or sluthouse in East sandgate was perhaps a bawdy house. A trollop close was on Leas lane in 1651.


Beacons   -    16th Century 

When the Spanish Armada came to England in 1588, orders were given for the beacons to be watched. They were sited so that they could be seen, one to another along the coast and inland. Coastal beacons were in groups of three. Inland beacons were sited in pairs. Groups of townships had responsibility for maintaining each beacon and its stock of fuel. In the event of a landing, the armed militia of the wapentakes could muster at agreed places under their captains. This was our early warning system.

Each beacon was to be watched day and night , two people by day and three by night . They had to be wise and discreet , honest householders over thirty years old. If the coastal watchmen saw any ships at sea, they had to judge whether their actions, change of course or anything else gave suspicion that they were enemies liable to do harm on land or to our ships sailing on the sea. They might light one beacon to warn our ships or the inland districts. This would not lead those inland to light their beacons.

If the coastal watchmen saw a great number of ships giving "vehement suspiciion to be enemies", and not to be doubted that they meant to invade, two out of the three beacons at shore sites and one of two beacons inland were to be lit. This was a warning for every man to "put himself in and be ready". The third stage would come if the great number of ships, appearing to be enemies came to land to invade, then all three beacons were lit at the coast and all pairs of beacons inland .All beacons were burning. Captains of the mustermen would lead their forces to the place where the first beacon was lit. Meanwhile, the country folk were to drive all cattle, sheep, horses and victuals inland, to deny them to the enemy. 

Queen Elizabeth 1 required a certificate of the number and state of beacons in the North and East Ridings in 1558. They included -

-Scarborough -a 3 beacon near the castle in the  charnel on north cliff which gave light to        Weaponess and so to Seamer and north to Burniston.

-A Fylingdale 3 beacon at Raw gave light north to Whitby, Sneaton etc ; The surveyor said of Fylingdales “It can give no further light to any other beacons in Whitby Strand or Pickering  by the reason of great hills and mountains which stoppeth the same light. We are informed that there is a hill called Grenedickes of Staynton mower above Stounebrowe of which hill there is no beacon, but if there were a beacon seated there, that beacon would give light to Scarborough beacon and Hackness beacon and all the beacon in Langbarghe, in Pickering Lythe, and Rydall and so to York Wold.”


Bethel       -       19th Century 

The Town hall in Quay Street was sold in 1800 to the Tindall family and became a Bethel. The term has  meaning as a “holy place”. This was used for religious meetings by various denominations. There was however a  grocery warehouse in the cellar.(Sh 756). A Sunday School opened in 1835. The building was sold to the Wesleyan Methodist Society in 1854. Modernisation in 1969 brought central heating and a new floor.(Prescott 1495) 


Booms.    -      17th-20thCentury

Booms were often employed  as part of harbour management to limit access to  areas of water. or to steady wave impact.  A  mast were taken for  the safeguard of  Scarborough  harbour in 1643 . A boom of heavy masts was anchored to prevent hostile ships entering the harbour in January 1649 .The Lighthouse pier had booms fitted to transmit wave shocks in 1995.


The British Tunny Club     -    20th.Century 

Blue fin tunny were familiar off the coast from 1929 to 1950.and were seen  closest inshore  near Scarborough  They followed the herring, Local fisherman Billy Watkinson saw what he thought was a tunny, an opinion confirmed by naturalist W J Clarke. . (M.Robinson SEN 22.10.2011) A Tunny weight 798 lbs,  9ft 4” long,  girth 6ft 5 “ was caught by Colonel E. T. Peel in 1929.. The first tunny was landed at Scarborough by Lorenzo Mitchell Henry in 1931. using rod and line. This  weighed   851.lbs. 


The British Tunny Club was established at No 1 Sandgate  in August 1933.(?32) The fish  were weighed and hung from  a gantry near the bridge on Vincent’s pier. Some were displayed in the hut next to the jetty opposite the Richard III house. A  room in the Woodend Natural History Museum was devoted to  tunny for a while. T G M Sopwith, Colonel Peel and Lady Yule were regular tunny fishers from  fine private vessels..


John Cave of 8 Church Street  kept a record of  188 tunny fish landed at Scarborough by members of the  club. 

1930   5          1931   1          1932   2          1933   19       1934   29

1935   40       1936   27       1937   9          1938   39       1939   1

1946   9          1947   7


The Tunny Club was revived in 1945 and ran for eight or nine  years. 

Tunney were caught in 1946. but Danish and German commercial fishing was blamed for a lack of fish. Others blamed the shift of warm water flows. R.T.,Lawson of the Royal Hotel landed three in 1947.The Pashby family keelboat “Courage “ took well off anglers to sea for tunny. A gathering at the  Lancaster inn was photographed of those who had gathered a a hundred  tunny from boats skippered by Bill Pashby.  Teddington businessman H.E. WEatherley hauled on middle pier in 19949 and weighed a 698 lb fish . (MJ 19.11.1991)  John Hedley Lewis a Lincolnshire  farmer landed a 852 lb. fish H. E. Weath brought in the last in 1954. The  half timbered head quarters,  formerly a public house, became a fish and chipshop[ according to Steve Fewster) In 1949.J ohn Senior bought the Tunny club, also known as the Jolly Friar,


Buoys       -    19th century

Buoys were newly sited in 1798  one on the north of the harbour, at “five fathoms from low water mark “and in the next year “a new buoy for the south end of old pier head” “to help ships getting in and out of the harbour”.  Other new Buoys were sited  in 1801 after gale damage, in the north part of the harbour at “five fathoms from low water mark” . Chapman sought anchors and chains for fastening more bouys,  for ships” to ward out to and get under weigh”  in 1811. A new pier buoy was placed in the Scarborough roads early in 1820. (Prescott 1274)


Buses    -        20th Century 

The Valley Bridge bus station opened in c 1936.(Prescott.Vol. 4)


The Cheker.     -       15th-16thCentury

John Percy  in 1489 held a tenement called the Cheker at Sandside.

Kathrine Harwood later paid rents  of 6s8d under  the cliff & 3s4d for “the Cheker at Key End”. Robert Lacy paid 10s rent for his dwelling called the Chekker in 1571. The Cheker of Hope at Canterbury was the town’s  largest mediaeval inn. 

When Lord Sheffield, Lord President of the Council of the North rode from Burton Agnes towards Mulgrave Castle via Scarborough  in August 1616  he was provided with lodging in Mistress Lacye’s  “ howse, adioyning upon the sands”.( Ashcroft 1.65). We may perhaps presume that the Chequer was an `inn,  with a sign of that character.         

                                                                                                                                                            

Cholera Hospital     -          19th Century

Robert Wilson, a master mariner of Sandside provided a large detached house beneath the  Castle wall for preparation as  a cholera  hospital (Hastings 20).


Coal Hulks and Sheds        -   19th Century

The change to coal burning fishing vessels in the latter 19th century required harbour storage of coal for the ship’s boilers. There was no quay side railway so coal had to be hauled from the railway station  to the harbour by horse and cart or shipped from Hartlepool railway sidings on to steam vessels for delivery to the harbour. Some coal was brought down the coast from Durham by collier .


The Scarborough  coal merchants  kept  half a dozen hulks as floating fuel stores in the harbour by 1879-80 .They were towed to Hartlepool by tugs,  filled with coal and towed back. One mast was kept and fitted with derricks  to help unload  baskets of coal. (MJ 4.12. 1995)(MJ.17.9.1994) About 300 tons of coal was used weekly by the fishing boats in 1882   Two coal sheds were later built on the west pier, one for the London steamer and one for the fisheries.(Towse 49) The “Juno”, beloinging to William Ellis of Merchant’s Row,  brought coal to Scarborough, tied up at the west pier and sold coal retail from on board.


Coffee  Houses         -    19th.Century

Cocoa and coffee houses were promoted by Victorian temperance advocates. Part of Hopper’s block and mast shed became a “British Workman” coffee house. TheSandside Coffee House opened on 27.7.1883. on the west side of West Sandgate  The Coffee Palace was at 41-43 Sandside in 1892.


Cranes

This is an unexplored subjkect. Much lifting was done using the upper works of sailing ships .Jib cranes were used to swing fish baskets ashore.  Scarborough  pier construction  during 1567-84 used a crane to rear stones with a pair of windlasses and a plank bridge . .Some rocks wre fetched with tonnes from half a mile away on the back of tthe c astle, others by hand barrow from behind the pier..The bigger vessels of the 19th century needed  better facilities for loading and off loading. A  three  ton steam crane required overhaul in 1890. It was rebuilt  in 1897 and used at the Mari ne Drive.

After 1950, a few vessels brought timber eachyear. By 1965  a variety of cargoes were brought by 142 vessels. In 1952, the council had a dredger built and the harbour was dredged to allow vessels up to 1000 tons to enter and berth .The port was given four ten ton mobile cranes, two grain conveyor belts and other equipment for transhipping imported timber, fertilizer and potatoes. 


Custom house

George and Agnes Thomson & Agnes conveyed a tenement and garden in East Sandgate ,with  a little building used for a Custom house to  James FitzRandolph of Wressel. They conveyed it again In1591to  Edward Cooke ,a LondonGentleman, described as .a Messuage and two garths, late James FitzRandolph’s in East Sandgate, with a garden near le Sluttes and a cubiculum or structure there now used as the Custom House.. William Oliver had dung before the Custom House c 1650.

The  Corporation mae a grant in fee farm in 1658 to John Cockrill master mariner  of waste ground adjoining on an old building called the old Custom house in East Sandgate , 22 ft by 2ft , on each side of the old custom house , 7 ft in length and 4         ft in breadth from east to west at the north end of the Old Custom House for a staircase into the Old Custom House. The new rent was  2d .(Ashcroft .2.248).James Cockerell held this in1698 (Ashcroft .1.248)By 1691 Jon Cockerell senior had two house in East Sandgate .A list of king’s rent for 1791,show s Robert Cockerell holding the old Custom House. The Custom House moved to another site ion Sandside,

                                                                                                           

Dolphins

Dolphins were  marine structures for mooring ships. They could consist of a group of timber piles bound at the top with cable or wire. The piles were chocked and bolted together  above mean low water, to further ensure the cluster would act as a unit.  Others appear later to have been made of  iron. Bending stress  and water pressures could be considerable. Dolphins could provide offshore mooring for ships, which were  unloaded by lighters or by other means as the harbour dried out.. The distance between mooring  dolphins had to  be as great as the length of the vessels..Seven dolphins wee marked on the 1725 Scarborough harbour map between the island pier and the shoreline. (Wood p25)                                                            


Drains or Sewers     -       17th-19th.Centuries

During 1651 Mr.Thompson was presented at  the borough court  “for his stayth lyng down joining upon the  great Sandyate whereby the common sewer (sure) is beeten down”. (Ashcroft. 182.) This could be the lower reach of the Damyet gutter. 

The drainage was improved near the West Pier in 1848. The discharge of the main sewer across the sands ended. A three foot wide sewer was brought down West Sandgate and through the West Pier.(SG.12.10.1848)

There was mention of a ” common sewer that  lieth over against  Will Marsingaile leading from Key street to the sands” in 1655 . (Ashcroft 222). The bailiffs and burg esses were presented at court  for not dressing and coveringt  the  sinke on the Smiddy hill joining on Mr Paul Peacock  in 1633. 


Fish Market 

For most of history, the fish market was  held on the sands and not in buildings. Fishermen from Scarborough were at the Dogger Bank by 1189. The  Scarborough fish market  was held in the open air, on the sands, apparently in the same area where it remained several hundred years later, not far from  the bottom of West Sandgate . However, a  tithe of fish was taken to  St Mary’s church. and  it is likely that  the market near the church also included fish sales. The Cistercians were custodians of the church  by 1189  and will have received more fish than they themselves needed.                      

The Borough rules existing by 1248 (but recorded in 1357) required that no-one was to buy fish to sell ,from the “Stragwelbat”(boat), but only when the fish were thrown on shore at the port of the sands, neither in the “hodmel” nor in any ship, (except “dogdrave” and the “herring” which were sold on land). This sounds like an ancient ruling. The additional  statement that none was to buy fish or herring unless in the day, on land, in the market and after the ship shall have anchored in the port ,may speak of a later time.  None were  to fish in the liberty, without the  assent of the commonalty .(Baker 35-37)

Foreign merchants and representatives of religious houses came to buy in August and September. Foreigners  bought herring at the port as well as  putting  in to salt and barrel their own  catch. By 1336, and probably long before  Scarborough was  selling  saltfish at York. Through most of history, filleting and selling of fish was done in the open air, drying or salting followed. .. 

By 1630-35 there is mention of  fish shambles, near the high conduit in upper town . The shambles were in the area of the later Market  Hall. The local Inhabitants were limited  to buying 100 herring from a fisherman in 1633 . (Ashcroft 1 207 & 271)

Wrangham in 1813  said that the “fish market was held on the sands alongside the boats. “At low water the boats are run up on wheels with a sail set. The sale is conducted thus:- one of the female fishmongers enquires the price and bids a groat. The fishermen states  a sum in the opposite extreme.The one biids up, the other reduces the demand, till they meet at a reasonable point, when the bidder suddenly shouts “Het” . He says that this practise seems to have been borrowed from the Dutch. 

It was remarked in 1862 that much fish was carried from the market for sale to the lodging houses..There was also a new fish shed at the auction market  King street

Coupland records the informal fish marketing by children from fishing families, when the herring fleet came in. They hid behind the crates and gathered falling fish from barrels and tables. They walked  round the town selling these fish.(Couplland p 2)                                                                                    

What follows is  decidedly sketchy and uncertain. A history of the  West pier market buildings is  needed, and a p[hotographic records, “while they remain” The old transit shed was built as  an indoor  fish market replacing  an open space where Hartlepool coal  had been landed and stacked on two large coaling stands  at the West pier  c1914 (LF15.11.1995) .There was initially just the one building. George Westwood was Told that an old steamer  called the Andalusia would call in at Scarborough in the late 1800’s carrying provisions. She would always lay at the last berth on the inside of the West Pier and the transit shed alongside was always known as the Andalusia shed.

F. Shepherd and Sons contracted to build a new fish market with  buildings, stores and six  sheds for £18.146 in 1961.The daily fish market was now  concentrated  on the west pier, where local cobles and keel boats off- loaded their  catch and took on supplies. The  fish were unloaded, boxed and  weighed in the market, The saleman called buyers together with a hand bell. The buyer took what  he had  bid for in his own boxes, iced it and sent it by rail..Varieties included large cod, medium cod, codlings, haddock, whiting, skate, ling, conger eel, plaice, dover sole, lemon sole, torbut, hake, brill, halibut and dog fish . 

New jetties and a slipway were proposed in 1972-3 along with extensions to  the fish market roof. The market buildings were given shuttering to help preserve the quality of landed fish in 1983.( 15.12. 1983). There were proposals to move fish filleting from the West Pier  to the Eastfield industrial  estate in 1986 (5.12.1986).Cracks had appeared in a concrete framed building. A ten point reform plan was also suggested (12.7.1986), including moving the ice plant to the end of  west pier, using plastic fish boxes,  adding chilling facilities and more . The ice house on west  pier  cracked and  collapsed in 1988  (21.3.1988) The old fish market on West Pier was demolished in 1989 

Scarborough Harbour Committee and Yorkshire Fish Producer organisations called for  better fish processing facilities and warehousing at Scarborough harbour. Fred Normandale of the Scarbrough Inshore Fishermens Society said that due to lack of processing  facilities, as much as 70% of  the Scarborough  catch was taken to Hull and Grimsby .Plans were made for a new fish market  including fishermans lofts, cafe, and  auction hall  for £400.000 .(29.5.1989)  The new Fish Market opened  in 1990. (9.1990).


Floating Dock        -           19th century

Facilities for  ship repair  were poor at Scarborough in the early 19th century, as compared with the estuary port of Whitby which had  dry docks. Vessels coming in  for repair had to be beached. (B.18) 

The Tindalls  had their own dry dock at London  but applied to have a floating dock at Scarborough in 1813. They  were turned down by the Corporation. Shipowner Michael Hick raised the question again with the corporation and one was allowed in 1819 .This was  limited to   ninety feet by forty feet , for refitting and overhauling vessels,  but  lacked  a permanent berth. It usually stood at the castle foot end of the outer harbour and paid an annual rent of 20s. At  low water a flap was lowered. which  remained open at high water..The dock was kept aground with ballast. Vessels were kept central in the dock with slack lines.  A model of the dock was once in the Kensington museum (SF)

When much  of the coal distribution  passed  from  local collier brigs to the railways, a company was formed to operate a small floating dock in the hope of increasing  ship repair work at  the port,. This  opened in 1850., It was 120 feet by 45 feet, with 14 foot sides. This was sited in the outer harbour to  take vessels up to 300 tons.  (SG 11.10.1848.)  On their closure of Tindalls in 1863, the dock   was sold to Thomas Hick & Co . (SG. 23.3.93.) The barques Olive Branch and Coral Isle docked there  The dock was abolished c 1880 but was reported  derelict at Castle Foot in 1895 (Buckley  98)(Towse p17,with picture). The tar boiling house  at the dock was pulled down by lads in 1889-90.(HF 7.1.1890)

The loss of the floating dock  prevented  adequate examination of  ship’s bottoms prior to repairs. A dry dock grid was made by Fred Whittaker & Co. in 1955  on what was called the “tidal principle”. A series of concrete bars were built on the harbour bed, at right angles to inner side of Vincent’s pier, opposite the henwalk. Vessels were able to settle on the grid, leaving a three foot clearance.(Towse 29) The dry dock grid was still in use in 1979.


The Gas Works        -           19th Century

Gas light would bring a new atmosphere to the Undercliff . A prospectus of   22.6.1831 for the establishment of a gas company at Scarborough  stressed the advantages of  a regular and gradual ascent for conveying gas,and hence the desirability of a site for the works near the cliff foot. The Scarborough Gas Company plant was built at  gas house yard on the north side of Quay street in 1834 . Gas light was taken  to the lightouse and the piers within six years The plant  was enlarged  forty  years later , a second retort house provng necessary in1877, but the works finally moved to Seamer Road.(Baker 346)


The Hall of Pleas        -      12th Century

The regular  mediaeval  courts of the borough of Scarborough were the Court of Pleas held daily, or as often as needed  for civil disputes, the Quarter Sessions court  held four times yearly,  for offences against the Crown and disturbance of the  peace,  and the Court Leet and  Sheriff’s  Tourn held twice a year , dealing with  public nuisances The two borough Bailiffs presided and the courts  were held at the Hall of Pleas. There was also a coroner’s court  for unusual deaths

One early undated charter records land belonging to Ralph de Bolebek. The older  Ralph de Bolebeck held the bailliwick of Scalby in 1168 and 1179. He was followed by another of the same name,probably the author of the  charter, since the witnesses Richard  and John Haldan, Robert Salt, John de Wandesford, Ralph de Loketon, Simon Berg senior and junior, and Bartholomew de Scalby belong to the early 13th century. Ralph granted the land to Thomas de Limburgh.  Thomas de Lindbergh’s son William  regranted  the site, at the substantial rent of 15s a year, to the burgesses of Scarborough. The 15s rent was later charged on the Hall of Pleas, which had been built on the site. 

The  “hall of pleas” or court house was either moved more than once or there were more than one. Before 1380 the  hall of pleas was on a corner site  in Fleshergate (WVB 15). Baker claims that the hall of pleas was between Merchants Row and  St Sepulchre gate on the site of a later  infant school opposite the entry of  the Society of Friends (Baker 383-5)I The Inn holder Robert Andrew  gave 5s towards the building of a common hall in 1595 .


Herring houses          -         14th-19th.Centuries

There were dramatic increases in the offshore herring  at Scarborough and Whitby  around 1394, at the same time that “the usual take of herring in foreign parts” was reported as “failing”. A Hull merchant was appointed to oversea working and making of white herring at Scarborough and Whitby and to ensure it was worked in conformity with the method practised at Lescone. One result was the appearance of many more foreign fishermen, trying to  buy herring in gross from local fishermen. A longer term result was the  increase of offshore fishing by the Dutch  who introduced drift net fishing using larger boats, fleet fishing  and  packing at sea. 

The appearance of herring houses about this time may be another consequence. The fatty herring needed immediate gutting  and was preserved by  dryng, salting, or smoking. Thomas Sesse  held an early herring house and a  capital messuage near  the sea.  Other herring houses were recorded  in the wills of townsmen , John Acklam in 1402 and John Seamer in 1429. (TE. 1 no 303)(Child 18). Another  herring house was  in Flesher gate in 1443  (Scarb. Wills Vol 1. 98 ).

Fishwives used flat bladed  knives, the blade cut down to half size and then shaped . Herring boxes were put in big barrels of salt water, the herring scooped out, split down the back, and gutted on a big oblong table, the guts thrown out and eaten by gulls. The herrings went back into salt water barrels  for twenty minutes as they were done.They were  hung on tenter hooks,( i.e. bent nails in 5 ft long sticks) , the sticks hung on racks in the kilns, with a smouldering fire of sawdust and chips of oak, lit on the kiln floor,and  kept going for 14-20 hours. 

Apparently kippering  herrings was unknown till  1843. The kipper flourished in the age of  the yawls...Kippering was done at night to avoid pollution. (Robson 68)  Thousands of boxes were  smoked and sent to London.  John Woodger of Newcastle produced  kippers at Seahouses, and later opened a smokehouse in Scarborough at  Hope street,  off Greengate. Durham Street  became another  kippering centre. Richard Robson came ashore in 1873 to start the  29 Durham Street curing business, building fine new herrng houses. They rented a smoking house at Hull  in 1892  and later another at Yarmouth. (Robson 65).A herring house in Wray lane is mentioned. Dove and Co were curing fish in Low Conduit street in 1905. Dade says that huge smoke houses were built in the nineties. Nineteen people were curing herring in the town in 1913.(Towse 53)

Brierley visited a kippering house at the corner of a narrow hillside street, in Scarborough. Each one consisted of four square smoke blackened walls, built very high. On the floor were several little smouldering fires of wood turnings and oak sawdust, the fumes permeating thousands of brown looking split herrings, suspended each by the  shoulder from tenterhooks on sticks and placed across frames reaching right up to the top of the wickets. These were opened or shut to regulate the heat and smoke 


The Ice Factory        -         20th.Century

Ice sawn from glaciers was brought in a Norwegain  schooner  before 1914 and stored in ice houses. It was packed in sawdust. The  gasworks  site  in Quay street  was also converted for cold storage  and  the manufacture of ice .(Adshead 1938 p 36).The Scarborough Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co Ltd  opened in 1921. Mr.  F.G. Stephenson was the Secretary at offices at  nine  Sandside in 1923. The large chimney dominated Sandside, until  demolished in 1961(SEN 28.10.94)The site is now a  car park. (MJ 28.10.1994)  Ice was obtained from Grimsby at 5£ a ton plus transport charges in 1979. (SEN 11.8.1979)  Jim MacCarthy  of H. Hardy & Co ran the Scarborough Ice Company’s  ice facility on  west pier (SEN 8.7.1983)(5.12.1986)  


The Jetty preceding  Lunar Park       -        20th.Century

This is said to have been  established c1900 by a Scots herring curer. (HF.8.3..1985)


The Key House or  Locker House           -         16th-19thCenturies

The  Elizabethan picture of the harbour shows a hut and a gun on the pier 

Workmen were  to be set on by the coroner  in 1624 to work upon the key house and to  lay and  sink great rocks when they could  upon the backside of the pier. (Ashcroft 127). Another key house was built for the pier workmen in 1658-9.

The old pier ” locker house”  held tools and stores in 1761  including  a stove chest, two wheels and a block belonging to the crane of the ducking chair (Towse 10). The old locker house was said to be removed in 1802 .On Apirl 10. 1812  an applicationwas made to the bailiffs  for permission to use the pier tool house as a sea bathing infirmary.This was allowed,  subject to  a gound rent of one shilling a year..There was talk of a new ” lookout House”in 1865.


Lifeboat House       -       19th-21stCenturies

Cobles had sometimes  rescued the crews of ships wrecked on and off the coast, and not without loss. Hinderwell described  four Filey fishermen in a coble going to help a vessel  on Filey Brigg in October 1799, after which visitors to Scarborough spa raised a subscription for the rescued . (Cole. Fugitives 1826 ) (Buckley 109). John Harwood, William Hende

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